Friday, June 30, 2006

Dead Ringers and Big Kahunas

Well this was my Phrase for the week, and I thought of posting it cos this is a common phrase I've heard often.

An exact duplicate.

We use phrases all the time without really giving their meaning a great deal of thought. You probably know that dead ringer means exact duplicate, but why is that? To a non-English speaker the two terms appear to have nothing in common. So, why dead; why ringer?
Let's first dispense with the nonsensical idea that's sometimes put forward as the origin of this phrase, i.e. that it refers to people who were prematurely buried and who pulled on bell ropes that were attached to their coffins in order to attract attention, how does the premature burial derivation of 'dead ringer' explain why it means 'exact duplicate'? There's no evidence for this idea.

A ringer is a horse substituted for another of similar appearance in order to defraud the bookies. This word originated in the US horse-racing fraternity at the end of the 19th century. The word is defined for us in a copy of the The Manitoba Free Press from October 1882:
"A horse that is taken through the country and trotted under a false name and pedigree is called a 'ringer.'"
It has since been adopted into the language to mean any very close duplicate. As a verb, 'ring' has long been used to mean 'exchange/substitute' in a variety of situations, most of them illegal. From the same period is the term 'ring castors', meaning to surreptitiously exchange hats. Castors, or casters, were hats made from beaver fur. From the 20th century we have the Australian phrase, 'ring in the gray (or knob)', meaning to substitute a double-sided penny for a genuine one. Coming more up to date we have 'car ringing', which is the replacing of the identification numbers on a stolen car with those from a genuine (usually scrapped) vehicle.

So, that's ringer; what about dead? Dead, in the sense of lifeless, is so commonly used that we tend to ignore its other meanings. The meaning that's relevant here is exact or precise. This is demonstrated in many phrases; 'dead shot', 'dead centre', 'dead heat', etc.
So, 'dead ringer' is literally the same as 'exact duplicate'. It first came into use soon after the word ringer itself, in the US at the end of the 19th century. The earliest reference I can find that confirms the 'exact duplicate' meaning is from the Oshkosh Weekly Times, June 1888, in a court report of a man charged with being 'very drunk':
"Dat ar is a markable semlance be shoo", said Hart looking critically at the picture. "Dat's a dead ringer fo me. I nebber done see such a semblence."

OK 'Big Kahuna' has nothing to do with 'Dead Ringer' but I came across the origins of 'Big Kahuna' and thought of posting it too and I liked the pic of the Kahuna. :0) Blogger is giving me trouble with the pics again, so I guess I'll post it later. :0(

"Big kahuna" is a common slang term for the person in charge of something. It comes from the Hawaiian word kahuna, meaning shaman or wizard.


Blogger megz_mum said...

Looking forward to the pictures!

3:08 pm, June 30, 2006  
Blogger ipodmomma said...

there is a UK sketch show on BBC called Dead Ringers, and it's pretty funny. my son loves it!

8:34 am, July 01, 2006  
Blogger smiley said...

Megz_mum : Unfortunately Blogger is still not letting me post any pics...

Ipodmomma : Dead Ringers sounds like fun :0)

4:25 am, July 04, 2006  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

I love your website. It has a lot of great pictures and is very informative.

2:49 am, July 21, 2006  

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